Opinion Analysis: CAAF holds that a CCA may not affirm a conviction by exceptions that eliminate specific facts, in United States v. English
CAAF decided the Army case of United States v. English, 79 M.J. 116, No. 19-0050/AR (CAAFlog case page) (link to slip op.), on July 30, 2019. Considering a conviction of forcible rape where the charged force was the accused grabbing the alleged victim’s head with his hands, CAAF holds that because the Army CCA found the evidence insufficient to prove that specific force, the CCA was prohibited from affirming the conviction on an alternative basis. CAAF reverses that conviction and remands the case to the Army CCA for sentence reassessment.
Judge Ryan writes for a unanimous court.
Specialist (E-4) English was convicted contrary to his pleas of not guilty, by a general court-martial composed of a military judge alone, of numerous offenses in connection with “a brutal and protracted sexual altercation with his ex-wife,” and he was sentenced to confinement for 23 years, reduction to E-1, and a dishonorable discharge. Slip op. at 2. One of the convictions was of the offense of forcible rape in violation of Article 120(a)(1) (2012). That offense has two elements: (1) that the accused committed a sexual act upon another person, and (2) that the accused did so with unlawful force. See ¶ 45.b.(1), Part IV, MCM (2016 ed.).
English was charged with committing the sexual act “by unlawful force to wit: grabbing her head with his hands.” (slip op. at 3 (quoting record). English’s ex-wife testified that English committed the sexual act, but she testified that she could not recall whether he grabbed her at all. Nevertheless, in closing arguments the prosecution “repeatedly emphasized that Appellant accomplished the penetration by grabbing the victim’s head with his hands,” while the defense argued “against th[at] characterization.” Slip op. at 3. The military judge convicted English as charged.
On review, in a published opinion that primarily addressed the military judge’s erroneous admission of a hearsay statement as a recorded recollection under Mil. R. Evid. 803(5), the Army CCA found that there was no evidence to prove that English committed the sexual act by grabbing his ex-wife’s head with his hands. The CCA did, however, find that “there was sufficient evidence to prove appellant committed the sexual act by unlawful force,” and so “the ACCA excepted the words ‘to wit: grabbing her head with his hands’ from the charge sheet and affirmed Appellant’s conviction based on the remaining language.” Slip op. at 3-4. CAAF granted review to determine whether the CCA may do that, with the following issue:
Whether the Army Court of Criminal Appeals can find the unlawful force, as alleged, factually insufficient and still affirm the finding based on a theory of criminality not presented at trial.
“The answer,” explains Judge Ryan, “is clearly no.” Slip op. at 2.